For me the Blogs are a modern and personal tool of very important human communication.

Our Blogs permit us to know us among diverse people that we are in this world of Internet.

Likewise it permits us to observe the enormous variety of points of view, criteria of design or personal opinions on diverse themes.

That is it more valuable of the Blogs; therefore any common person has the opportunity to be expressed, on a worldwide basis, in any theme that we like or we want to emphasize.

Finally greeting everybody or friends “blogueros” around the world.

I wish that you have a Happy and prosper year 2008.

See You Later.
CARLOS Tiger without Time

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The world’s scientists have done their job. Now it’s time for world leaders, starting with President Bush, to do theirs. That is the urgent message at the core of the latest — and the most powerful — report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 2,500 scientists who collectively constitute the world’s most authoritative voice on global warming.

Released in Spain over the weekend, the report leaves no doubt that man-made emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (and, to a lesser extent, deforestation) have been responsible for the steady rise in atmospheric temperatures.

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If these emissions are not brought under control, the report predicts, the consequences could be disastrous: further melting at the poles, sea levels rising high enough to submerge island nations, the elimination of one-quarter or more of the world’s species, widespread famine in places like Africa, more violent hurricanes.

And it warns that time is running out. To avoid the worst of these disasters, it says, the world must stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases by 2015, begin to reduce them shortly thereafter and largely free itself of carbon-emitting technologies by midcentury.

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As Rajendra Pachauri, a scientist and economist who leads the I.P.C.C., noted: “ What we do in the next two or three years will define our future.”

Deep in all this gloom is a considerable ray of hope: significant progress toward stabilizing and reducing emissions can be achieved using known technologies.

This a hugely important message for policy makers and for those who say there’s no point in spending money on the problem because the game is already lost. The world does not have to rely on pie-in-the-sky technologies, the report insists. What it really needs is a policy structure to encourage major investments in cleaner technologies that are already at hand or within reach.

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The report’s urgent warnings and its message of hope could not be more timely. Nations will gather in Bali next month to begin framing a successor to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, which expires in 2012. Under normal circumstances, Bali would be the beginning of a long, contentious process; Kyoto, negotiated in 1997, did not take effect for seven years. What the I.P.C.C. is saying is that the world cannot afford to wait for another grand agreement, and certainly not for another seven years. It needs action now.

Every member of Congress should read this report. The Senate has begun hearings on legislation that would put a mandatory cap on carbon emissions. The bill is not perfect and, to some critics, not strong enough. But it is a worthy start and would move the United States toward the cleaner fuels and carbon-free technologies essential to the task of changing the way the world produces and uses energy.

Mr. Bush should also read it and order extra copies for members of his staff. After years of denial, the president now concedes that a problem exists. But he still insists on voluntary remedies and still worries about the costs to the American economy of anything more ambitious. If there is one message Mr. Bush and other world leaders must take away from the scientists, it is that the price of more delay will be far greater.

Published by Google: November 20, 2007

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A Russian Soyuz TMA-11 spaceship carrying members of the 16th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), including Malaysia’s first astronaut, was launched on Wednesday.
11 oct.2007
 
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From left, Malaysian astronaut Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson during the check of spacesuits .

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Members of the expedition will carry out 48 experiments, including a study of human cardiovascular activity and sleep functions, as well as research into the growth and development of plants in the absence of gravity, earth remote sensing, and a series of biotechnological experiments.

Valentina Tereshkova was born on March 6, 1937 and in 1963 was the first woman to fly in space aboard the Vostok 6 spacecraft.

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The USSR Pilot-Cosmonauts Heroes of the Soviet Union Yury Gagarin (left) and Valentina Tereshkova (right).

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Wedding ceremony of Pilots-Cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova (left) and Andriyan Nikolayev (right).

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The USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova with daughter Alyonka.

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The USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut Valetina Tereshkova (right) with mother Yelena (left) in Yaroslavl.

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Henri Poincare (1854-1912) was one of the most eminent French mathematicians of the past two centuries.

One of Poincare’s best-known problems is what is today called the Poincare conjecture.

The poincare conjecture is considered so important that the clay Mathematics Institute named it one of the seven millennium prize problems will be awarded $1 million.

The Poincare conjecture falls within the realm of topology.

This branch of mathematics focuses, roughly speaking, on the issue of whether one body can be deformed into a different body through pulling, squashing or rotating, without tearing or gluing pieces together.

A ball, an egg, and a flowerpot are, topologically speaking, equivalent bodies, since any of them can be deformed into any of others without performing any of the “illegal” actions.

A ball and a coffee cup, on the other hand, are not equivalent, since the cup has a handle, which could not have been formed out of the ball without poking a hole through it.
The ball, egg, and a flowerpot are said to be “simply connected” as opposed to the cup, a bagel, or a pretzel.

Poincare sought to investigate such issues not by geometric means but through algebra, thus becoming the originator of “algebraic topology.”

In 1904 he asked whether all bodies that do not have a handle are equivalent to spheres. In two dimensions this questions this question refers to the surfaces of eggs, coffee cups, and flowerpots and can be answered yes. (Surfaces like the leather skin of a football or the crust of a bagel are two-dimensional objects floating in three-dimensional space)

For three-dimensional surfaces in four-dimensional space the answer is not quite clear. While Poincare was inclined to believe that the answer was yes, he was not able to provide a proof.

Several Mathematicians were able to prove the equivalent of Poincare’s conjecture for all bodies of dimension greater than four. This is because higher-dimensional spaces provide more elbowroom so mathematicians find it simpler to prove the Poincare conjecture.

But, for three-dimensional surfaces in four-dimensional space –remember: The surface of a four-dimensional object is a three-dimensional object. Poincare’s conjecture remained as elusive as ever.

See you later
Carlos Tiger without Time

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How the twin primes to cause the error in the processor Pentium Intel?
Whitin the group of integers, prime numbers are in a way thought of as atoms, since all integers can be expressed as a product of prime numbers (for example, 30=2x3x5), just as molecules are made up of separate atoms.

The theory of prime numbers continues to be shrouded in mystery and still holds many secrets.

Taking the first 100 numbers we count 25 primes; between 1001 and 1100 there are only 16; and between the numbers 100,001 and 100100 there are a mere six.

Prime numbers become increasingly sparse. In other words, the average distance between two consecutive primes becomes increasingly large.

Around the turn of the 19th century, the Frenchman Adrien-Marie Legendre and the German Carl Friedrich Gauss studied the distribution of primes. Based on their investigations they conjectured the space between a prime P and the next bigger prime would on average, be as big as the natural logarithm of P.

Sometimes the gaps are much larger, sometimes much smaller. There are even arbitrarily long intervals in which no primes occur whatsoever. The smallest gap. On the other hand, are two, since there is at least one even number between any two primes.

Primes that are separated from each other by a gap of only two –for instance, 11 and 13, or 197 and 199- are called twin primes.

There are also prime cousins, which are primes separated from each other by four nonprime numbers. Primes that are separated from each other by six nonprime numbers are called, sexy primes.

Much less is known about twin primes than about regular primes. What is certain is that they are fairly rare.

Among the first million integers there are only 8169 twin prime pairs. The largest twin primes so far discovered have over 50,000 digits. But much is unknown.

Nobody knows whether an infinite number of twin prime pairs exist, or whether after one particular twin prime pair there are no larger ones.

Working on the theory of twin primes, Thomas Nicely from Virginia, in the 1990s. He was running through all integers up to 4 quadrillion.

The algorithm required the computation of the banal expression X times (1/X). But to his shock, when inserting certain numbers into this formula, he received not the value 1 but an incorrect result.

On October 30, 1994, his computer consistently produced erroneous results when calculating the above equation with numbers ranging between 824,633,702,418 and 824,633,702,449. Through his research on twin primes, Thomas Nicely had hit on the notorious Pentium bug.

The error in the processor cost Intel, the manufacturer, and $500 million in compensations.

See you later
Carlos Tiger without Time

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Wednesday, September 19, 2007
ADVERTISEMENT
Scientists doubt that the supposed meteorite strike that sickened some 200 residents of Peru over the weekend actually involved anything from space.
Based on reports of fumes emanating from the crater, some scientists actually suspect that the event could have been some kind of geyser-like explosion rather than a meteorite impact.
“Statistically, it’s far more likely to have come from below than from above,” said Don Yeomans, head of the Near Earth Object Program at NASA’S Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

The noxious fumes that have supposedly sickened curious locals who went to examine the crater would seem to indicate hydrothermal activity, such as a local gas explosion, because “meteorites don’t give off odors,” Yeomans told SPACE.com.

Skepticism warranted
Several times in recent history, reports of meteorite impacts have turned out to be untrue after scientific examination. Doubt in the scientific community was as rampant Wednesday as the speculations out of Peru.
Details surrounding the incident are also increasing experts’ skepticism.

“Many of the reported features of the crater (“boiling water,” sulphurous fumes, etc.) point to a geological mechanism of the crater formation,” wrote Benny Peiser, a social anthropologist at Liverpool John Moores University in England, in a daily newsletter that catalogues research and media coverage of space rock impacts and other threats to humanity.

“I would not be surprised if, after careful analysis,” he added, “the alleged meteorite impact reveals itself to be just another ‘meteorwrong.'”

It’s not impossible that the crater was left by a meteorite, Yeomans said, but if so, then the impact object most likely was small, based on the size of the crater.

It would also probably have been a metal meteorite, because those are the only kind of small meteorites that don’t burn up as they plummet through Earth’s atmosphere, he added. Small stony meteorites rarely make it to the surface.

A couple features of the event reports suggest there was a space rock involved, said geophysicist Larry Grossman of the University of Chicago.

The bright streak of light and loud bangs seen and heard by locals are consistent with a meteor streaking through Earth’s atmosphere, he said. Most meteors do burn up, never becoming meteorites (which is what they’re called if they reach the surface).

Because no one actually saw anything impact at the crater site, it’s hard to say whether a space rock was involved because they are often deceptive as to where they will land.

Many times, people swear a meteor landed nearby when in fact it was so far away that it dipped below the local horizon but never actually struck the ground.

“Sometimes these things land hundreds of thousands of miles away from where [people] think they will land,” Grossman said.
Investigation needed Pictures of the crater show that the hole in the ground appears fresh, Grossman said, and the debris strewn around it is consistent with a meteorite impact but also could have been caused by digging.

And there are no previous reports of noxious fumes emanating from meteorite remnants or their craters, he said.
“If the noxious fumes came from the hole, it wasn’t because the meteorite fell there,” Grossman said, saying they would like have come from something already in the ground.

Grossman said that to determine whether the crater was made by a meteorite, the water in the hole must be pumped out and any large chunks of rock at the bottom should be examined to see if they are consistent with meteoritic composition.
Peruvian geologists are on their way to examine the crater, according to news reports.

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LIMA, Peru – A fiery meteorite crashed into southern Peru over the weekend, experts confirmed on Wednesday. But they were still puzzling over claims that it gave off fumes that sickened 200 people.


Witnesses told reporters that a fiery ball fell from the sky and smashed into the desolate Andean plain near the Bolivian border Saturday morning.
Jose Mechare, a scientist with Peru’s Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute, said a geologist had confirmed that it was a “rocky meteorite,” based on the fragments analyzed.


He said water in the meteorite’s muddy crater boiled for maybe 10 minutes from the heat and could have given off a vapor that sickened people, and scientists were taking water samples.
“We are not completely certain that there was no contamination,” Mechare said.


Jorge Lopez, director of the health department in the state where the meteorite crashed, told The Associated Press on Tuesday that 200 people suffered headaches, nausea and respiratory problems caused by “toxic” fumes emanating from the crater, which is some 65 feet wide and 15 feet deep.
But a team of doctors sent to the isolated site, 3 1/2 hours travel from the state capital of Puno, said they found no evidence the meteorite had sickened people, the Lima newspaper El Comercio reported Wednesday.


Modesto Montoya, a member of the team, was quoted as saying doctors also had found no sign of radioactive contamination among families living nearby, but had taken blood samples from 19 people to be sure.
He said fear may have provoked psychosomatic ailments.


“When a meteorite falls, it produces horrid sounds when it makes contact with the atmosphere,” he told the paper. “It is as if a giant rock is being sanded. Those sounds could have frightened them.”
Justina Limache, 74, told El Comercio that when she heard the thunderous roar from the sky, she abandoned her flock of alpacas and ran to her small home with her 8-year-old granddaughter. She said that after the meteorite struck, small rocks rained down on the roof of her house for several minutes and she feared the house was going to collapse.
Meteor expert Ursula Marvin said that if people were sickened, “it wouldn’t be the meteorite itself, but the dust it raises.”


A meteorite “wouldn’t get much gas out of the Earth,” said Marvin, who has studied the objects since 1961 at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. “It’s a very superficial thing.

By Monte Hayes
The Associated Press
Updated: 4:45 p.m. ET Sept 19, 2007

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We Should Fight for contributing ours “granite of sand” in the construction of a world to pacify and supportive. A world that always says STOP to terrorism.

Therefore, to achieve a world environment to pacify, I believe that we must to begin for ourselves, in our daily life, in our house, with our family, with ours neighboring, our friends, our coworkers.

Likewise we are supportive WITH THE PEOPLE POOREST around of the world. We must give them real supportive and disinterested love, so we are better persons, more solidarity and we will be contributing to build a better world where there be not place for any type of terrorism.

See you later.
Carlos Tiger without Time

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There are about 1,500 different languages spoken in the world today.

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In the early 1940’s when it was first being organized, officials (ONU) proposed that all diplomats be required to speak a single language, a restriction that would both facilitate negotiations and symbolize global harmony.

Over the years, there have been no fewer than 300 attempts to invent and promulgate a global language, the most famous being made in 1887 by the polish oculist L.L. Zamenhof. The artificial language he created is called Esperanto, and today more than 100,000 people in twenty-two countries speak it.

United Nations ambassadors are now allowed to speak any one of five languages: Mandarin Chinese, English, Russian, Spanish,  or French.

Today who speak mathematics fluently, as measured by the millions and by the historic consequences of their unified efforts, is arguably the most successful global language even spoken.

Though it has not enabled us to build a tower of Babel, it has made possible achievements that once seemed no less impossible: electricity, airplanes, the nuclear bomb, landing a man on the moon, and understanding the nature of life and death.

Matthe Arnold said: “ Poetry is simply the most beautiful, impressive, and widely effective mode of saying things.”

In the language of mathematics, equations are like poetry: They state truths with a unique precision, convey volumes of information in rather brief terms, and often are difficult for the initiated to comprehend. And just as conventional poetry helps us to see deep within ourselves, mathematical poetry helps us to see far beyond ourselves – if not all the way up to heaven, then at leapt out to the brink of the visible universe.

In attempting to distinguish between prose and poetry, Robert Frost once suggested that a poem, by definition, is a pithy form of expression that can never be accurately translated. The same can be said about mathematics: It is impossible to understand the true meaning of an equation, or to appreciate its beauty, unless it is read in the delightfully quirky language in which it was penned.

· Summarized and adapted of “Mathematical Poetry” of Dr. Michael Guillen

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May be Positive and Realistic same time?

There are many people that believe about be positive mean be happy and to be funny and laughed all time. Also speak with great-short phrases that are very popular

I am not negative, never I was it really. Some times I felt sad or impotence by the unjust suffering of many persons.

Also I felt depressed by some personal situations or by relatives. But, always I recovered, in few time.

I believe in a spiritual positive-realistic mixture of thought and to dominate my mind and actions in my routine activities.

Also, I never lose my youthful ideals, neither my dreams of childhood, and I know that themselves will not comply in this real world but if they do it in my dreams, So I had been adapted to a new form to see the life, to see it with an interesting mixture of idealism and actions realistic.

I believe that a concrete demonstration, of it aforementioned, is to try to write in my Blog some diverse articles, photos, videos, comments of yesterday, today and tomorrow.

For me the time is relative, more important is the message or the actions in the human beings involved. In some cases some country, in other cases all world.

Also never we should forget the people that already passed away (arts, sciences, music, literate, good family or friends, etc.)

Never we forget them, I believe that they are the Mind and Positive Spirit of the World, without them, and some that are alive, the world has a positive future, without them I believe that nobody can save to world.

Have a good Day.
Carlos, Tiger without Time

Nobody has ever systematically looked at the sky on 100-year time scales, said Josh Grindlay, the Harvard astronomer in charge of the project. There is this whole dimension that hasn’t been explored.

The Harvard Observatory holds more than a century of astronomical records. Below (picture 1), we can see cabinets filled with photographic plates in 1891.

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The great Refractor (below), which in 1850 captured the first picture of a star; images from the archives, including the Large Magellanic Cloud (1900), the constellation Sagittarius (1943) and the Rho Ophiuchus nebula (1948)

In 1889 when this was still an analog world, a young astronomer named Solon I. Bailey carefully packed two crates of glass photographic plates taken at his outpost in the Peruvian Andes for shipment to Harvard College Observatory. Carried down the mountain on mule back and across a suspension bridge to the village of Chosica, the fraile load was put on a train bound for Lima and the long voyage to Boston Harbor.

For nearly 18 months the data stream continued -more than 2,500 plates from what Mr. Bailey had quaintly named Mount Harvard- followed in the coming years by tens of thousands more from a second Peruvian station in Arequipa.

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The “computer” room at the Harvard Observatory in 1891, below, where women examined glass photographic plates containing images of the sky. One of their most important tasks was looking for stars that changed periodically in brightness. (Picture 3)

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The reliance on photographic plates continued until the mid-1980s when electronic imaging came of age. The eyes of the astronomers were replaced by charge-coupled devices, or C.C.D., allowing for faster, more voluminous observations with all the advantages of a searchable database.

Today, Picture 4 below, Alison Doane, curator of the glass database, compares a chart with a glass plate in her office.

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Below, an observatory camera from 1891 (picture 5), and the custom-built scanner now used to digitalize the old plates, shown in binders at picture 6, is the handwritten logbooks, which researchers are working to transcribe.

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* Summarized and adapted from New York Times, July 10, 2007

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Can a bunch of Garagistas Revive NASA?
To revive the space program it follow:
1) Basement brainstormers
2) Workbench concocters
3) And Garage Tinkerers

The difference between being a mad scientist and a famous inventor is the difference between failure and success

One contestant said:

“I guess I’m still in the mad-scientist phase.”

· Summarized of NYT Magazine july 1, 2007

James BUCHANAN EADS was a great engineer. Born in Indiana in 1820.
He wanted to build a gargantuan railway that would transport whole ships across 134 miles of land between the oceans at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the narrowest part of Mexico where the total distance between the east and west coast would be 2,000 miles shorter than a trip across Panama.

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His idea was to raise the ships onto 350-foot-long flatcars. At either end of the isthmus a 450-foot-long submerged-pontoon dry dock would be loaded with a flatcar; the car would carry an adjustable cradle with hydraulic rams to make it conform to the shape of a ship’s hull.

Once the car and its cradle were on the pontoon, a ship would sail into position above them.

Then water would be pumped out of the dry dock to lift it up to the level of the tracks, where upon three outsized locomotives would hitch up and pull the car forward.

In the winter of 1887 he was vacationing in the Bahamas when he received word that the senate had finally approved the plan. But on march 8 that year he died, unaware that opponents in the house had just blocked it.

His grand scheme passed away with him, an audacious plan that just might have succeeded. In 1889 the French company building the canal went bankrupt, plagued by soaring costs, financial scandals, and ruinous disease at the work site.

The United States finished the canal in 1914, 33 year after lesseps (French diplomat who had overseen the construction of the Suez canal, proposed a Panama canal) had started it, at a cost of $352,000,000

* Summarized of “Invention & Technology”, 2003

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Japan is the world’s most innovative country, according to a report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, a sister company. It gets the top score in an index, ranging from 1 to 10, which is based on patents per person. The report casts light on the factors behind innovation. Based on a survey of 485 senior executives around the world, it indicates that the top determinants are the technical skills of a country’s workforce and the quality of its telecoms and information-technology infrastructure. It also suggests that, despite India’s success in IT services, China has better conditions for innovation. The return on innovation is greater in middle-income countries like Mexico than among richer nations.

* May 17th 2007
From The Economist print edition

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At present this appearing a reproof, in the environment of countries, for the use of the Internet.

There are two position:

1) Information wants to be free, because it lowers the cost of distribution of words and pictures, and it enables information to spread freely within countries and across borders.

2) Information wants to be expensive because it’s so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life.

So you have these two fighting against each other. For example, Viacom’s decision to sue youtube and its owner, Google, for $1,000,000,000 (a billion dollars) is part of the commercial battle over whether information should be free or expensive.

The fact that individuals can follow suit, publishing everything from political tracts to pictures of their friends naked, makes censorship a virtually impossible job.

The Internet does not respect national laws or conventions.
China still does its best to censor information, both by blocking sites and companies such as Yahoo and Google into self-censorship.

The US government’s efforts to control child pornography are an exception and have faced legal challenges under the first amendment in the courts.
The Supreme Court struck down one effort to ban on line distribution of simulated sexual acts in 2002.

Another example is the short-lived effort by a Turkish court to block youtube because of an insulting film about Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey, led to international ridicule and internal criticism. The ban has been lifted after the offending film was removed from the site.

In Saudi Arabia, the Internet services unit filters and block sites deemed to violate Islamic tradition or national regulations.

On conclusion the country that they have more censorship are: (Source, Reporters without borders, march 2007)

1) CHINA … USERS: 137.0 Millions
2) TURKEY … USERS: 16.0 Millions
3) THAILAND … USERS: 8.4 Millions
4) IRAN … USERS: 7.5 Millions
5) EGYPT… USERS: 5.0 Millions
6) BELARUS … USERS: 3.4 Millions
7) SAUDI ARABIA … USERS: 2.5 Millions
8) SYRIA … USERS: 1.1 Millions

So Internet information want to be free, but does not always get the choice when write about political, religion or some issue that does not like some countries.

See you later.
CARLOS, Tiger without Time